Epilepsy - a chronic disease, which is manifested by repeated convulsive seizures or other, accompanied by loss of consciousness and personality changes keppra iv.

The disease is known for a long time. His descriptions are found in the Egyptian priests (about 5000 BC), doctors of Tibetan medicine, medicine and the Arabic-language, etc. Epilepsy in USA called epilepsy, epilepsy or a disease occurs frequently: 3-5 cases per 1000 population.

Despite the long-term study, the etiology and mechanisms of the disease are not well understood.

In newborns and infants the most common causes of seizures are severe hypoxia, genetic metabolic defects and perinatal injury. In children, seizures are often caused by infection nnym diseases of the nervous system. There is a fairly clearly defined syndrome in which seizures develop only as a result of fever - febrile convulsions. In 5% of the children at least once in your life with an increase in body temperature observed convulsions in about half of them expect repeated seizures.

At a young age the main cause of seizure disorders is a brain injury, it should be aware of the possibility of seizures in the acute and in the later period. Persons older than 20 years, especially in the absence of a history of epileptic seizures, the cause of epilepsy is a brain tumor.

In patients older than 50 years among the etiological factors of epilepsy should first indicate vascular and degenerative brain diseases. Epilepsy occurs in 6-10% of patients with ischemic stroke, the most common is the acute period of the disease.

It is important to emphasize that in 2/5 patients the cause of the disease can not be established with sufficient evidence. In these cases, epilepsy is considered as idiopathic. Genetic predisposition plays a role in certain types of epilepsy. Patients with a family history of epilepsy have a higher risk of developing seizures than in the general population. Currently installed in the human genome localization of genes responsible for some forms of myoclonic epilepsy.

In the pathogenesis of epilepsy leading value has a change of neuronal activity of the brain, which is due to pathological factors becomes excessive frequency. A characteristic is a sudden marked depolarization of the neurons in the brain, which is a local and is realized in the form of partial seizures, or becomes generalized. Substantial violations thalamocortical interaction processes and increase the sensitivity of cortical neurons. Biochemical basis of seizures are excessive release of excitatory neurotransmitters - glutamate and aspartate - and the lack of braking neurotransmitters, particularly GABA.

Pathology. In the brain of deceased patients with epilepsy revealed degenerative changes in the ganglion cells, kariotsitoliz, shade-cells neuronophagia, hyperplasia of glial cells, disturbances in synaptic apparatus, neurofibrillary swelling, the formation of "windows" in zapustevaniya nerve sprouts, "swelling" of the dendrites. These changes are more marked in the motor area of ​​the cerebral cortex of the brain, a sensitive area, gyrus of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the nuclei of the reticular formation. Are identified as residual changes in the brain associated with previous infection, trauma, malformations. These changes are not specific.