The thyroid gland - an essential element of the endocrine system produces hormones necessary for the body's physiological functions A hormone produced by the thyroid gland (thyroxine), establishes the rate of body functioning. The thyroid gland is located in front of the neck and attached to the bottom of the larynx and upper part of the trachea. The thyroid gland is in Greek called glandula thyreoidea (tireoidea), and therefore all terms that refer to it, used in medicine root "tireo-". The thyroid gland is a small enough size and shape of a butterfly, because it consists of two circular parts (shares), which are connected by a narrow isthmus. The work of the thyroid gland is mainly dependent on the iodine content, so people living in the regions where the low concentration of iodine in the water, doctors recommend iodine supplements and eat foods rich in iodine.

Pain in the thyroid gland may be a sign of the following diseases:

1. thyroiditis - inflammation that develops in an unchanged before the thyroid gland, and against the background of growing the crop - strumitom. The reason for the development and tireodita strumita is acute or chronic infection of Acute thyroiditis or strumitis begins with fever, headache and severe pain in the thyroid gland. Pain radiating to the occipital region and the ear. On the front of the neck there is swelling, biased if swallowed. Severe complication of suppurative thyroiditis is the development of mediastinitis. Sometimes develops sepsis. That's why all the patients hospitalization with the purpose of active treatment.

2. purulent thyroiditis (granulomatous thyroiditis de Quervain, Crile) is caused by a viral infection. Clinical manifestations of the disease is similar to purulent thyroiditis, accompanied by pain in the thyroid gland.

3. Chronic lymphomatoid Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Disease include organ-specific autoimmune pathological processes in which the antibody produced in the body with respect to specific components of one body. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis under the influence of unknown causes thyroid gland starts to produce changes in hormonal-inactive yodproteiny different from thyroglobulin. Penetrating into the bloodstream, they are antigens to form antibodies against acinar cells of the thyroid and thyroglobulin. Recent inactivate thyroglobulin. This leads to disruption of the normal synthesis of thyroid hormones, which causes increased secretion of pituitary TSH and thyroid hyperplasia. In the later stages of the thyroid gland function decreased, the accumulation of iodine in it is lowered Hashimoto's thyroiditis is more common in women over the age of 50 years. The disease develops slowly (1-4 years). The only symptom for a long time is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. To the touch, it is firm, but not soldered to surrounding tissues and mobile on palpation Later appear discomfort and pain in the thyroid, the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Regional lymph nodes were not enlarged.

4. Chronic fibrous thyroiditis is Riedel. The disease is characterized by the growth of the thyroid gland connective tissue replacement of its parenchyma, involving in the process of surrounding tissues. The etiology of the disease has not been established. The thyroid gland is diffusely enlarged, there is moderate pain in the thyroid gland, stony hardness, soldered to surrounding tissues. There have mild symptoms of hypothyroidism. Pressure on the esophagus, trachea, blood vessels and nerves are responsible for the proper symptoms.

5. Symptoms of thyroid cancer (pain in the throat and neck, pain in the thyroid in swallowing and breathing), sometimes attributed to infectious diseases, so some cases, diagnosis is difficult. Every year, doctors recorded more than 11 000 cases of thyroid cancer, mainly among women. The risk of diseases of the disease are most prone to women older than 30 years, and particularly menopause. The probability of recovery is greater than 95% under the condition of diagnosing a disease at an early stage.

6. Increased activity of the thyroid gland: hyperthyroidism - a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of hormones. This leads to enhancement of metabolism, which causes rapid weight loss, occurrence of hot flashes and sweating. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism: hand tremors, irritability and heart palpitations, discomfort and pain in the thyroid gland. In women, patients with hyperthyroidism, reduced the duration and intensity of menstruation.