Sleep disorders - the phenomenon quite widespread seroquel insomnia. From 8 to 15% of the adult population of the world impose frequent or constant complaints of poor or insufficient sleep, from 9 to 11% of adults consume sedative hypnotics, and among the elderly, this percentage is much higher.

Sleep disorders can develop at any age. Some of them are the most typical for certain age groups, such as bedwetting, night terrors and sleepwalking in children and adolescents, as well as insomnia or abnormal sleepiness in people middle-aged and older. Other disorders, such as narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome may begin in childhood and persist throughout life.

Classification of sleep disorders continues to improve. Recently, the Committee for the Study Centers Association of sleep disorders suggested a classification based mainly on clinical symptoms.

Insomnia. The term insomnia or sleeplessness, used widely to describe any impairment duration, depth and the effect of refreshing sleep. Insomnia can occur as a primary disease in the form of secondary manifestations of mental disorders, anxiety states, the use of drugs or therapeutic diseases, as well as in combination with other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea.

In order to establish the causes of insomnia, it is necessary to carefully analyze the signs of sleep disorders. The sleep diary maintained by the patient, as well as reports of relatives that the patient snores in his sleep, makes different movements or incomplete awakening, help suggest a more specific diagnosis. In explaining the history should be established that the cause of sleep disorders: disturbance of sleep and wakefulness and wake-up periods, intermittent sleep in the daytime, uncomfortable night's sleep conditions, self-medication or the use of alcohol, tobacco or caffeine and its derivatives. Features complaints of sleep disturbance may also give some information on the possible causes of these disorders. The inability to fall asleep or wake up after sleeping for 2-3 hours, can be caused by the use of drugs and alcohol, serious illness, periodic movements in sleep or stop breathing obstructive nature, occurred in a dream. In some cases, patients fall asleep quickly and most of the night a good sleep, but wake up too early in the morning. Often, this category includes people with depression and anxiety, as well as elderly people who can spontaneously fall asleep and wake up in the daytime.

Behavioral insomnia. Situational insomnia is called insomnia lasts less than 3 weeks, and having, as a rule, the emotional nature. People suffering from psychosomatic insomnia, difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night, they say the constant awakening in the early morning hours, which leads to chronic fatigue and excessive irritability. The patient's condition may be exacerbated by anxiety because of these sleep disorders. Waking up at night trying to sleep, and exasperation, such patients may lie awake for 1-2 hours, but it seems that it took 3-4 hours. Signs of anxiety or depression in these patients is not always detected.

Currently, the best preparations for a long-term treatment of insomnia consider benzodiazepines. Efficacy in long-term (over 30 days) application of any of hypnotic drugs is not established. In the US, the most commonly prescribed flurazepam (Flurazepam) in a dose - 60 mg at bedtime. Well-known sedatives are chloral hydrate and barbiturates, but the high tolerance and withdrawal limit their use. Some authors have suggested the use of L-tryptophan in the dose of 1-5 g, but its clinical efficacy has not been convincingly proved.

The widespread use of benzodiazepines as night sedatives currently complicated the identification of certain undesirable side effects. Firstly, it appears to moderately severe addiction, and in addition, there is cross-tolerance with their combinations with each other and alcohol. Secondly, tolerance or withdrawal syndrome of drugs (see. Below) may provoke reactive insomnia. Third, the active exchange flurazepama products and some other benzodiazepines cause adverse biological effects lasting 36-48 hours (in the elderly even longer).

When insomnia becomes chronic psychosomatic for, drug treatment alone is seldom effective. It develops a vicious circle, as usual awakening the patient at night and fears of losing sleep aggravate insomnia. This may be one of the main difficulties and requires the combined, psychosocial and behavioral approach to the appointment of sleeping pills.