Viral hepatitis, the D - acute or chronic viral infection of the conditional group transfusion hepatitis, characterized by lesions of the liver and flows in the form of co-infection or superinfection on a background of viral hepatitis B this buy zithromax online. Synonym - delta hepatitis.

Pathogen M. Rizetto opened with co-workers (1977) in the nuclei of hepatocytes during an unusually severe outbreak of serum hepatitis in southern Europe. First, the agent considered one of the antigenic variants of the viral hepatitis B virus was soon proven independent value of the new virus, and it was called the D virus (delta).

Pathogen - a defective RNA virus genome "wandering" kind Deltavirus, allocated only on patients infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis D virus virions spherical shape; gene forms a single-stranded circular RNA molecule that brings viral hepatitis D with viroids. Its sequence does not have homology with DNA of the pathogen of viral hepatitis B, viral hepatitis but superkapsid D includes a large number of viral hepatitis B. HBsAg D virus is not capable of self-reproduction; synthesis of viral hepatitis D components necessarily require involvement of viral hepatitis, in particular the HBsAg. The main antigen of hepatitis D virus is resistant to heat, acids, nucleases, glycosidases. protein denaturation is achieved by treatment with alkali and proteases. Repeated freezing and thawing does not affect its activity.

The reservoir and the source of the causative agent - the person, the patient, or a virus carrier. The spread of the virus are the main factors a person with chronic hepatitis B simultaneously infected with viral hepatitis D. In conditions of wide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B, and creates favorable conditions for the circulation of the causative agent of viral hepatitis D. contagious period sources of infection indefinitely long, but the most patient dangerous in the acute phase of the disease. Under experimental conditions, possibly infecting chimpanzees infected with hepatitis B.

The mechanism of transmission - parenteral, with the same features as in viral hepatitis B. The risk of infection is especially great for regular recipients of blood or its products, for persons subject to frequent parenteral interventions, as well as for injecting drug intravenously. Infection often occurs in surgery, tuberculous offices, dialysis centers. Possible transplacental transmission of hepatitis D virus from a pregnant fetus. Revealed the spread of viral hepatitis D in families, especially among children, which presupposes the existence of a natural pathway. The high incidence of infection among the leading promiscuous (especially among homosexual men), gives reason to believe that is possible, and the sexual route of infection.

Natural susceptibility is high. By viral hepatitis D susceptible all persons, patients with viral hepatitis D or are carriers of hepatitis B. The most likely development of hepatitis D in chronic carriers of HBsAg. Particularly susceptible populations in areas hyperendemic for viral hepatitis B. Severe forms of the disease can occur even in children.

Main epidemiological characteristics. Similar to those of viral hepatitis B. About 5% of HBsAg carriers in the world (about 15 million) are infected with hepatitis D.

Infection with hepatitis D only occurs parenteral route, and only in the presence of the virus reproduces viral hepatitis B. The causative agent is embedded in the viral hepatitis B virus genome, affecting its synthesis and increasing the replication of the latter. The disease may manifest itself in the form of co-infection, while infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D and viral superinfection in those cases where the hepatitis D virus enters the human body, previously infected with hepatitis B virus (an acute or chronic viral hepatitis B). Replication of hepatitis D virus occurs in the liver cells. The pathogenesis of hepatocyte injury in this disease has not been fully deciphered, but it is believed that the virus has a direct cytopathic effect on the cells of the liver.

Pathomorphological viral hepatitis D does not have any specific features that distinguish it from hepatitis B and is characterized by severe necrosis painting that dominates the inflammatory response. The hepatocytes are watching massive necrosis and atomizing obesity. Interaction of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D weights and pathological process leading to the development of acute liver failure or chronic.